Updated April 29, 2020
The “why” of self-directed learning is survival—your own survival as an individual, and also the survival of the human race. Clearly, we are not talking here about something that would be nice or desirable….We are talking about a basic human competence—the ability to learn on one’s own—that has suddenly become a prerequisite for living in this new world. – Malcom Knowles, 1975
While lifelong learning and self-directed learning are not equivalent, they overlap substantially – and both have become exponentially more important in our current world, where continual learning – and unlearning – are the key to adapting and thriving.
I think the following points apply equally to both. The successful lifelong learner is someone who:
1. Takes initiative
This first one is core to the entire concept of “self-directed.” The successful self-directed learner does not wait for someone else to say “you must learn this.” Rather, she is intrinsically motivated toward self learning, recognizes the learning opportunities all around her, and regularly seeks out new opportunities.
2. Is comfortable with independence
Self-directed learners do not always act autonomously or independently. Indeed, increasingly they must cultivate their networks to learn effectively. Nonetheless, successful self-directed learners know how to be self-reliant and they recognize that solitude and time for reflection are essential for effective learning.
3. Is persistent
Self learning – like all learning – takes time, it takes repetition, it takes practice. Successful self-directed learners stick to it, recognizing that learning is not an event but a process.
4. Accepts responsibility
The successful self-directed learner embraces responsibility for doing the work of learning and doing it well. She recognizes, also, that learning is not just about herself: it is essential to the health of the groups and communities of which she is a part.
5. Views problems as challenges, not obstacles
6. Is capable of self-discipline
Even when learning is enjoyable (which, for the successful self-directed learner, it usually is), it often requires discipline. The self-directed learner knows (or learns!) how to develop and maintain the discipline needed for self learning
7. Has a high degree of curiosity
Successful self-directed learners have a high propensity for asking why – and lots of other questions.
8. Has a strong desire to learn or change
The successful self-directed learner is intrinsically motivated. She has a will to learn and sees learning as a positive path forward. She recognizes the yin and yang of learning: no learning, no change; no change, no learning.
9. Is self-confident
Successful self-directed learners have a solid sense of “self-efficacy” – the belief that one is capable of performing in a certain manner to attain certain goals.
10. Is able to use basic study skills
As I have said here before many times, skills like taking notes effectively are useful for a lifetime. The self-directed learner knows this and practices note-taking and other effective learning strategies.
11. Organizes his or her time
While self-directed learning does not require the obsession with productivity that seems to be everywhere on the Interweb, the successful self-directed learner nonetheless knows how to find and manage time effectively to allow for learning.
12. Sets an appropriate pace for learning
The successful self-directed learner recognizes that learning is as much (if not more) about the process than the outcome and doesn’t try to do too much too fast.
13. Develops a plan for completing work
Setting a plan is part of setting the pace and ultimately reaching the destination. The successful self-directed learner recognizes planning as a critical element of self learning.
14. Has a tendency to be goal-oriented
While not all self-directed learners consciously set goals, they nonetheless tend to have an end in mind when they start down the learning path.
15. Enjoys learning
The proverbial bottom line: the successful self-directed learner simply likes to learn.
How well do these points describe you as a learner?
How effectively are you cultivating these ways in those you teach (your children, you members, you employees, your students – you name it.)
Please comment and share. Also, if you are – or aspire to be – a serious lifelong learner – I encourage you to sign up for my newsletter to get a weekly reflection question.
P.S. – These “ways” have been extracted from a description in a 1977 survey that ultimately led to development of the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale, which was subsequently renamed the Learning Preferences Assessment. In the post above, I have expanded upon the characteristics highlighted in the description with my own comments.
A highly self-directed learner, based on the survey results, is one who exhibits initiative, independence, and persistence in learning; one who accepts responsibility for his or her own learning and views problems as challenges, not obstacles; one who is capable of self-discipline and has a high degree of curiosity; one who has a strong desire to learn or change and is self-confident; one who is able to use basic study skills, organize his or her time and set an appropriate pace for learning, and to develop a plan for completing work; one who enjoys learning and has a tendency to be goal-oriented. (Guglielmino, 1977/78, p.73)
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